Wednesday, December 31, 2014

SDK--Software Development Kit

Generally speaking, SDK, short for software development kit, is a programming package which enables a programmer to develop applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar development platform. Typically an SDK includes one or more APIs, programming tools, and documentation.

SDK can be very simple. Sometimes, it can be as easy as to implement one or more application programming interfaces to a particular programming language. Under some other circumstances, SDK may be a little more complicated which includes the implementation of sophisticated hardware which is capable of communicating with a particular embedded system. Generally speaking, the common utilized tools are debugging facilities and other utilities. Moreover, sample code and supporting technical notes or other supporting documentation are usually included for they can be used to help clarify points caused by the primary reference material.

As a rule, the SDK can be downloaded directly via the internet. Software engineers often get the SDK from the target system developer. The majority of SDKs are usually provided for users free of charge, which may encourage the developer to use the system or language in return. Some people just use this as a marketing tool to promote their products from time to time.

The add-on software itself, which can be used for development purpose, may be included in an SDK for an operating system add-on, and QuickTime for Mac OS is an example.

Under some circumstances, the software may be replaced by a more specific term by the provider of SDKs for specific systems or subsystems. For instance, both Microsoft and Apple offer driver development kits instead of software development kits for developing device drivers, which will provide the user with more help and advantage and convenience.

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Types of Color Space

Color space is a vey useful and widely applied tool in image editing programs and file formats while the majority of people may not be aware of its use. Generally speaking, a color space is a tool which is of great help for people to understand the color capabilities of a particular device or digital file for it shows people the specific organization of colors. It combines with physical device profiling, which enables it to reproduce representations of color, no matter it is analog or digital representation. When reproducing color on another device, color spaces will clearly show whether the shadow/highlight detail and color saturation can be retained and whether they have been damaged or to what degree they have been damaged in such process.

There are many different types of color space which also have different applications accordingly. The common types and applications are as follows:

Device-dependent spaces can show color relative to some other reference space. With this representation, you are able to get some very useful information about the subset of colors. These can be shown when you use a specific monitor or printer or can be captured when you use a specific digital camera or scanner.

Device-independent spaces can show color in absolute terms. Generally speaking, these will be used as universal reference colors. As a result, when comparing other devices, they can be used as a backdrop. Otherwise, these color spaces will not be seen by users for few of them are aware that these color spaces are interacted with the photo editing process.

The range of colors is restricted to a standard color palette in image editing programs and file formats by the working space. Adobe RGB 1998 and sRGB IEC61966-2.1 are the two most widely utilized working spaces in digital photography. 

Monday, December 29, 2014


You are free to choose either VGA or DVI interface to connect a monitor into your computer. However, before you make any decision, it is necessary and advisable for you to have a good command of their differences. As a matter of fact, the most distinguished differences between VGA and DVI is that VGA is an analog standard while DVI is digital.

It is wise of you to choose DVI as the device to connect your computer and monitor. If you are using the VGA port to transfer digital resources, then the original digital signals will be converted into analog signals, which could lead to the loss of quality. You may not receive the image and video as clear and vivid as the original ones. However, VGA was very useful when it was invented because all monitor are based on CRTs which were analog in nature at that time. It is more economical to convert the signals through the CPU than transmit them directly.

However, with the emergence of LCDs, the data is digital at both the origin and destination. In such case, VGA doesn’t help but waste time and energy in the conversion of signals. Moreover, the quality of digital signals will also be damaged to some extent.

People spared no efforts to cope with this problem and DVI is created. If you have added DVI to LCD monitors and graphics cards, the digital data can be transmitted without any modification or conversion. Therefore, the digital signals will be as clear and vivid as the original ones. Gradually, DVI is becoming more and more popular among consumers.

Above all, DVI is digital while VGA is analog. As a result, VGA is suitable for CRT monitors while DVI is best for LCDs.   On the other hand, VGA may lead to quality loss because of multiple conversions.

Sunday, December 28, 2014

VGA - Video Graphics Array

VGA, short for video graphics array, is an interface between a computer and monitor that was widely used before the DVI standard was developed. Introduced by IBM on its PS/2 line in 1987, VGA quickly took the place of the earlier digital CGA and EGA interfaces and enjoyed great popularity among consumers because of its higher resolution and more colors. Generally speaking, VGA systems provide a resolution of 720 by 400 pixels in text mode. Moreover, the resolution is either 640 by 480 (with 16 colors) or 320 by 200 (with 256 colors) in graphics mode. In total, the palette of colors can reach 262,144.

VGA uses analog signals instead of digital signals, which can distinguish it from the earlier graphics standard for PCs, for example, MDA, CGA, and EGA. Older CRTs used VGA, and flat LCD panels typically have both analog VGA and DVI digital. However, as a matter of fact, chances are that some newer PCs are not compatible with VGA interfaces because their monitors are designed for one of the older standards. As a result, VGA is not usable in such systems.

With the rapid development of science and technology, an increasing amount of new and high-tech devices have emerged, which poses some kind of threat to VGA. Those newer devices will provide consumers with greater resolution and more colors. For instance, SVGA, a 8514/A graphics standard, and XGA are mode advanced and easy to utilize. Nonetheless, VGA has always remained the lowest common denominator. Actually, all PCs manufacturers produce today are compatible with VGA. Therefore, you have no need to worry that your computer would fail to work once installed VGA. Although VGA may be not as advanced and versatile as the newly emerged devices, it is still very helpful and powerful.

Saturday, December 27, 2014

About HDMI Connectors

There are four types of HDMI connectors applied in the high definition multimedia interface system, among which three are very popular among consumers.

The Type A HDMI connector are the most widely utilized in this digital age. As a result, Type A is usually symbolized for the standard connector. Generally speaking, it is combined by the plug and socket. Most HD connections have such structure. Moreover, Type A HDMI connector is composed of 19 pins.

The Type B HDMI connector is a little bit larger than Type A connector. As a matter of fact, it consist of 29 pins instead of 19 pins. Therefore, these extra pins allow it to have a “dual link DVI” connection, which means that it is able to transfer more information and video details than Type A. The image and video transmitted by Type B will be more vivid and clear. Unfortunately, people have no such demanding requirements, so Type B is not very popular among consumers at present.

The Type C HDMI connector have a lot in common with type A. For example, it also has 19 pins. What distinguishes it from Type A is that its plug is of smaller size in comparison. Therefore, Type C HDMI connector is widely used on some portable devices as such device has no enough much room for sockets.

The Type C HDMI connector is of the smallest size among those four types connectors. However, it also has 19 pins. Compared with Type A and Type C connectors, Type D, different in form, is relatively flat. To make it easier for you to understand, it is safe to say that the differences in their sizes and shapes is similar to those between a standard USB plug and a micro-USB plug.

Experts are also dedicating to developing more advanced connectors which will surely bring consumers more conveniences and benefits.

Friday, December 26, 2014

What Makes HDMI Different

HDMI, short for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, is a widely used standard on audio and video equipment. As a newly emerging high-tech device, HDMI enjoys great popularity among consumers. So, what makes it different form other devices and so popular among consumers?

First of all, it uses a single cable wrapped with 19 wires, which allows it to carry a bandwidth of 5 gigabits per second (Gbps). Such a bandwidth is twice as high as that needed in the transmission of multi-channel audio and video. Therefore, it is so powerful that no equipment is able to replace it in the foreseeable future.

Secondly, previous interfaces can only transfer analog signals while signals traveling through the HDMI interface are both uncompressed and all-digital. As a result, traditional interfaces would damage the quality of the original source because of the necessary conversion. However, with the HDMI interface, you will not suffer quality loss for it keeps the source signal and eliminates analog conversion. Those images and videos transferred through it can keep their integrity and without any distortion of picture quality.

Generally speaking, all traditional interfaces needed separate audio cables and thus most people had to draw support from standard audio jacks. Unlike them, HDMI is able to transmit both video and eight digital audio channels for uncompromised surround-sound with the aid of its abundant bandwidth and speed. You just need a single cable to carry though this complicated process, which greatly both simplifies the setup of the home theater system and ensures the high quality of images and videos. Therefore, it is safe to say that HDMI is distinguished from other interfaces in a lot of ways and those differences make it an ideal device for us to enjoy perfect images and videos with the least possible quality loss.  

Thursday, December 25, 2014

Brief Introduction of HDMI

Last but not least, HDMI was developed by Sony, Hitachi, Thomson (RCA), Philips, Matsushita (Panasonic), Toshiba and Silicon Image. Those companies really develop a powerful and versatile device for human beings. HDMI brings people so much conveniences and benefits. More and more powerful equipment is bound to emerge in the future and people will enjoy a more comfortable and digital life.

HDMI is superior to all current consumer media formats in that it was designed to be able to carry 8 channels, of 192kHz, 24-bit uncompressed audio. Furthermore, HDMI is capable of transmitting any type of compressed audio format. It is also compatible with all high-definition video formats in existence as well as advanced definition formats and standard definition formats.

It is the first interface which supports uncompressed, all-digital/video in the electronics industry. You just need a single cable and user-friendly connector and then the complicated cabling structure behind the home entertainment would disappear. On the other hand,HDMI offers you an interface which can transmit signals between any audio/video source over a single cable. For example, signals from a set-top box, DVD player, A/V receiver, an audio and/or video monitor and a digital television (DTV) can be easily transferred. Moreover, standard, enhanced and high-definition video, even multi-channel digital audio are all supported by HDMI.

HDMI, short for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, is a widely used standard on audio and video equipment. For example, high-definition television and home theater systems are where HDMI enjoys great popularity. It uses a single cable wrapped with 19 wires, which allows it to carry a bandwidth of 5 gigabits per second (Gbps). Such a bandwidth is twice as high as that needed in the transmission of multi-channel audio and video. It is so powerful that no equipment is able to replace it in the foreseeable future.

Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Brief Introduction of PCB

PCB, short for printed circuit board, is an important and vital part which supports and connects electronic components with the help of conductive tracks, pads and other features etched copper sheets. There are many kinds of PCB. For example, single sided PCB(one copper layer) , double sided PCB(two copper layers) or multi-layer PCB. Conductors are connected to each other with plated-through holes which are called vias. For advanced PCBs, some components, like capacitors, resistors or active devices, may be embedded in the substrate.

Printed Circuit Board is widely used in practice. There are also some devices you can use to replace PCBs, for example, wire wrap and point-to-point construction. What’s more, PCB needs additional design efforts in order to lay out the circuit. However, it can also save you a lot of time and energy for its manufacturing and assembly can work automatically. On the other hand, manufacturing circuits with PCBs can be much cheaper and faster than manufacturing circuits in any other way as you are able to mount and wire components with only one single part. Last but not least, errors in operations with PCBs can be decreased as much as possible, which is another advantage of PCBs.

As a matter of fact, printed wiring board or etched wiring board is a more appropriate name for such device when the board has only copper connections and no embedded components. However, the term printed wiring board has been discarded by people even though it is more accurate. A PCB equipped with many electronic components is called a printed circuit assembly (PCA), printed circuit board assembly or PCB assembly (PCBA). The term preferred by IPC for assembled boards is circuit card assembly (CCA). Generally speaking, PCB is an informal name for both bare and assembled boards.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

How PCI Express Connection Speeds So Fast

Compared with PCI bus and PCI-X bus, PCI Express lane is more powerful and faster. The PCI bus has a fixed width of 32 bits, which allows a maximum speed of 33 MHz and 133 MB of data to pass through the bus per second. The PCI-X has twice the bus width of PCI. On the other hand, PCI-X is able to transfer data at different rates according to different specifications. However, with the surprisingly rapid development of science and technology, PCI and PCI-X can no longer satisfy people’s demands for they need faster data transfer and more digital resources to be dealt with at the same time.

After great efforts, PCI Express emerges as required. With a single PCI Express lane, you are able to cope with 200 MB of traffic in each direction per second. To people’s great surprise, a x16 PCIe connector is capable of transferring 6.4 GB of data per second in each direction. As a result, people can easily deal with large amounts of audio and storage applications at the same time, which is extremely convenient and powerful.

People keep wondering: how PCI Express connection speeds so fast? Actually, some simple advances make these come true:

First of all, the system gives priority to data, which means that it transfers the most significant data first and prevent bottlenecks.

Second, it transfers data immediately after receiving them.

Third, the physical materials used to produce the connections have been improved.

Forth, handshaking and error detection have been boosted up.

Fifth, the way to break data into packets and put the packets together again has been improved.

Last but not least, with the dedicated and point-to-point connection, multiple sources can work their way through different buses.

With all these improvements, PCI Express works faster and more efficiently.

Monday, December 22, 2014

How PCI Express Lanes Work

When we start up our computer, PCIe will determine for us what are connected into the motherboard. Next, it will work to figure out the links between different devices and negotiate the width of each link. At the same time, it will find out the traffic map and coordinate the route of all traffic. As a matter of fact, PCI identifies devices and connects them in the same way. As a result, the old software and systems are still of use. And it is not necessary for you to change or upgrade your software or operating systems to make PCIe work on your computer.

Each lane of a PCI Express connection consists of two pairs of wires, and one for sending and one for receiving data. Packets of data can move across the lane at a rate of one bit per cycle. One lane of a x1 link, which is the smallest PCI e connection, contains four wires. It transmits one bit at once in each direction. A x2 connection is made up of eight wires and carries two bits per cycle. A x4 connection transmits four bits per cycle, and so on. There are also x12, x16 and x32 links whose operating can be inferred based on the same working principle.

PCI Express can be used by both desktop and laptop PCs. Its links uses fewer pins than PCI links do, which will decrease the cost of motherboard production. In this aspect, it is rather economical and convenient. On the other hand, chances are that it is compatible with many devices, for example, Ethernet cards, USB 2 and video cards. In all, PCI Express offers us more powerful digital systems which is able to help us deal with large amounts of data simultaneously, efficiently, and economically.

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Why We Need PCI-E

PCIshort for Peripheral Computer Interconnect, is a very powerful and vital component which can bring us a lot of conveniences. For many years, PCI slots have been indispensible parts for our computers. PCI slots, used by enormous digital devices, are so widely applied in our daily life that we may not pay much attention to them. When it comes to connecting sound, video and network cards to a motherboard, the first thing we can think of is the PCI slot, which has been proved to be very powerful and useful.

However, nothing is perfect. PCI is no exception. With the rapid development of science and technology, PCI can no longer satisfy people’s demanding requirements. Video cards, sound cards and network have become more and more versatile and faster, but PCI has not improved at all. On the other hand, people need a device which can help them deal with more digital resources in a quicker and more powerful way. PCI can not satisfy such demands for its width has been fixed at 32 bits and it can only deal with 5 devices simultaneously. The newer device, 64-bit PCI-X bus, has more bandwidth, but it has some other issues to cope with.

Therefore, PCI-E emerges as required. It gets rid of most of PCI’s disadvantages and benefit people in a broader way. It is equipped with more bandwidth. Moreover, it is compatible with all operating systems in existence. As a result, PCI-E has been immediately and widely received by the majority. It is able to deal with much more devices at a time and operate in a more efficient way. People have no need to worry about the large amount of digital resources pouring in. PCI-E is designed to improve the process efficiency of digital resources and enjoys popularity among consumers.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Brief Introduction of DMA

DMA, short for direct memory access, is a very easy and convenient way to transfer data. Generally speaking, you have to process data first through the CPU when transferring data. Sometimes, it is not necessary and troublesome because you may have to wait for a while to transfer data. However, DMA offers you a better choice. Using this technique, you can transfer data from main memory to a device without passing it through the CPU. Keep in mind that some data does not need to be processed or can be processed by another device. Under such circumstance, DMA can really save you a lot of time and energy. Moreover, it works more efficiently. Therefore, computers having DMA channels can transfer data to and from devices much more quickly than computers without a DMA channel.

In order to make you have a better understanding about how it works, we can take a sound card for an example to make some explanations. A sound card may need to get some data which is stored in the computer’s RAM. Without DMA, it will take some time to wait for the CPU to process the data. However, it can also use DMA to bypass the CPU for processing the data itself. In this way, not only do you transfer data in a quicker way, but you also have the opportunity to do some other work on your computer since the CPU is not very busy.

Nonetheless, if you want to make use of DMA, there is something you are supposed to do: assign your devices to a DMA channel. Otherwise, you have no chance to experience how fast and convenient it can be. As a matter of fact, each kind of port on a computer has a set of DMA channels. Therefore, you can assign your device to the DMA channel and then you are free to transfer data. 

Saturday, December 13, 2014

About Resolution

The resolution of the image refers to the total number of pixels displayed on the screen of your computer. Generally speaking, the higher the resolution is, the higher the quality of the image is. As a result, great efforts should be taken in the improvement of the image resolution.

There are a lot of different types of the resolution of digital images, including pixel resolution, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, temporal and radiometric resolution.

First of all, pixel resolution is used to describe the number of the pixel utilized in the digital imaging. Different ways can be adopted for the expression of the pixel resolution, for example, you are free to choose in the following form: a horizontal x vertical measurement, in megapixels, or per unit area. The megapixel refers to the way in which the horizontal value is multiplied by the vertical value and divided by a million.

Second, the spatial resolution is an expression which is utilized to describe how closely the columns, namely, the horizontal value, and rows, namely, the vertical value, can be resolved in an image. Not only does it rely on the number of the pixel but it is also dependent on the system which creates the image. 

Third, the spectral resolution is a way used to express the resolution of the different color wavelength existing in a colored image.

Forth, the temporal resolution is an expression which is adopted in order to describe the resolution of events at different time points in the movie camera.

Last but not least, the radiometric resolution is a way which is applied in the expression of the number of bits. Moreover, it also defines the difference existing in intensity among the image file.

In conclusion, resolution is of high significance in printing high quality images and graphics. After all, more resolution means more data and more information.

Friday, December 12, 2014

Friday, December 5, 2014

Magewell XI006AE-PRO 6-channel Video Capture Card

Low profile, high performance without image drawing
Simultaneously capture 6-channel A/V at D1/30fps

 1. Features:

Small Size with Higher Performance
XI006AE-PRO meets standards of Low Profile and Half Length, which can be installed in 2U chassis or standard chassis conveniently. Such a small-size card can simultaneously capture 6-channel CVBS video and 6-channel unbalanced stereo audio with great performance.

High-quality components ensure powerful stability
All the chips and capacity components, which are imported, are in high quality. It adopts the design of 6 layers. The signal capture is much better than similar products. It can work easily at its full capacity for long hours (i.e. continuously work 24h x 7 without stop).

High-quality capture of analog signals
It can simultaneously capture 6-channel CVBS and 6-channel unbalanced stereo audio with each channel at D1/30 fps. It does not have the phenomenon of losing frames and is compatible with PAL and NTSC standards. It can automatically detect the video standards of input signals without manual settings.

Easy to Reach High Bandwidth by PCI-E Interface
It adopts PCI-E interface, and allows establishing independent channel for data transmission. It does not need to apply for bandwidth from system and can reach high bandwidth easily.

Image Scale and Clipping
XI006AE-PRO can scale or clip input signals by accessory AMCAP tool to satisfy your individual requirements and bring more personalized experience.

High-quality Experience of Audio and Video
It adopts technologies of AD converter, with the sampling precision rate at 10 bits, and 5-tap motion-adaptive comb filter to ensure the sharpness of images and the minimum image noises. The image details will be more colorful and reduce the color edges; it adopts A/D converter with the sample rate at 96KHz and 24 bits sampling precision rate, and the SNR in actual experiences is about 90 db. The high sampling rate and high sampling precision can ensure the minimum distortion of sampling, and the high SNR can ensure pure voice.

Streaming Media Live Broadcast
The compressed video, if it is compressed into stream media format, will lower its quality and will consume more CPU. The pure uncompressed video source will improve the quality of internet stream media video. It supports leading stream media software and does not need secondary development. It enables to capture the video in its best quality and then compress it into any specific formats which are fit for internet publication, and users can establish their own IPTV!

Compatibility with More Software
It adopts standard development interface and is based on audio and video capture interface of DirectShow Filter and audio capture interface of DirectSound. It is based on IKsPropertySet expansion interface and it’s compatible with more software, like Windows Media Encoder, Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder, Real Producer Plus, and VideoLAN for Windows.

Flexible Capture of Multi-channel Signals
It has the feature of Simultaneous Streaming, and various applications can capture at the same time without lowering the frames. It can process the signal source into streaming media of various kinds of formats, various kinds of bit rates, various kinds of resolutions at the same time. It will help reduce the cost and it’s suitable for IPTV and supports various end-users.

Easy Hardware Update
It adopts Magewell exclusive video processing engines, and it is highly flexible. You update Magewell processing engines by firmware and driver update without replacing the hardware. It can achieve the result of hardware update even if the chips remain unchanged. It largely reduces the cost of maintenance and succeeds in providing perfect service.

2. Accessories:
XI006AE capture card: 1 PCS
DB-25 breakout: 1
Low-Profile bracket: 1
Installation CD-ROM: 1ship separately

3. Tech Specs


Host Interface
PCI-Express x1, Low Profile, 200MB/s transmission throughput
Input Interface
1 DB 25 interface (can switch to 6-channel CVBS and 6-channel unbalanced stereo audio input)
CVBS Video Input
6-channel SD video signals
Analog Audio Input
6-channel stereo analog audio signals

CVBS Input Standard
SD Output Formats
176x144-768x576, frame rate: 1-30 fps
Sampling Rate and SNR of Analog Audio
Up to 96KHz, 85db, 24-bit
Video Sample Rate
57.27MHz (4x Oversampling)
Video Sampling Precision
10 bits
Color Space
YUYV, UYVY, I420, RGB 24 Bits, RGB 32 Bits
Video Processing

Switch of Color Space
Hardware Color Switch
Vertical filter de-interlacing; motion-adaptive de-interlacing
Image Scale
Hardware 5-Tap Scale
Image Mirror
Horizontal; vertical
Image Clip
Image Adjustment
Brightness/contrast/hue adjustment/
saturation adjustment/control of monochrome and color/
Gamma adjustment
seperately adjust the brightness and contrast of R/G/B

OS Support
Support the following operating systerms, including x86 and x64:
Windows XP Professional
Windows Server2003
Windows Vista
Windows Server 2008
Windows 7
Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows 8
Windows 8.1
Software Compatibility
Windows Media Encoder
Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder
Real Producer Plus
VideoLAN for Windows
Onboard Memeory
128MB DDR2, working rate is 160 Mhz, bus width is 32 bits
Firmware can be updated.
It can be inserted in PCI-Express x1, x4, x8 or x16 slot, and installed in 2U chassis or 4U chassis.
123mm x 64.5mm
Power Consumption
<= 5W
1-year warranty