Saturday, January 31, 2015

The Difference between Interlaced and Progressive Video (Ⅰ)

There is no denying that the interlaced format is the earliest known form of video compression. As a matter of fact, it is developed in order to address early TV technology challenges and broadcast bandwidth constraints. However, interlaced video was not perfect enough to satisfy people’s various requirements. Therefore, the progressive video was developed as a newer technology which can help meet people’s requirements under specific conditions.

As for interlaced video, each field of a video image displays every other horizontal line of the complete image. For instance, in the first field of the interlaced video, the even-numbered lines will be displayed, and then the odd-numbered lines of the same image will be shown with the second field of the same interlaced video. If this even/odd sequence is repeated frequently enough, for example, 25 to 30 times per second, then the viewer will be able to see the complete moving image with the help of the persistence of human vision.

It is well known that the interlaced video allows more detailed images to be created than would otherwise be possible within a given amount bandwidth, which is its main benefit. As a matter of fact, a doubling of image resolution is also allowed in interlaced video. However, there are also some problems which cannot be ignored. In the first place, interlaced video comes with real-world downside. On the other hand, image softening will take place during fast-motion sequences. In addition, moiré or strobing artifacts are likely to occur in the process of showing striped shirts, plaid jackets, bricks in a building or similar types of objects.

In comparison with interlaced video, progressive video has greatly gotten rid of such problems and thus enjoy more popularity among people. It is possible that progressive video will play a more important role than interlaced video in the future.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Advantages of Progressive Scan

Generally speaking, progressive scanning has its own advantages when compared with interlaced scanning. First of all, the main advantage with progressive scanning is that the motion will be smoother and more realistic. In contrast, the interlaced video of the same rate will have a lot of visual artifacts, such as interline twitter. When capturing video with progressive scan, people have no such worries. It is safe to say that there will be an absence of visual artifacts, which enables the captured image to be used as still photos.

As a result, there is no need in intentional blurring, namely, anti-aliasing, of video in order to reduce interline twitter and eye strain. As a matter of fact, in the case of most media such as DVD movies and video games, the video is automatically blurred during the authoring process itself to subdue interline twitter when played back on interlace displays. Therefore, it is entirely impossible to recover the sharpness of the original video if the vide has been viewed progressively. A feasible solution to this problem is that people are supposed to choose the display hardware and video games come equipped with options to blur the video at will or to keep it at its original sharpness. Under such circumstance, the viewer is able to achieve the desired image sharpness no matter whether he is adopting interlaced or progressive displays.

Actually, progressive video is clearer and faster for scaling to higher resolutions in comparison with its equivalent interlaced video. HDTVs not based on CRT technology cannot natively display interlaced video. Therefore, the interlaced video has to be deinterlaced before it is scaled and displayed on HDTVs. However, in the deinterlacing process, some noticeable artifacts and input lag between the video source and display device are likely to emerge.

Thursday, January 29, 2015

About Progressive Scan

Progressive scanning refers to a way of displaying, storing or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. It is also known as noninterlaced scanning alternatively. In comparison with interlaced video, progressive scanning is a way distinguished from interlaced scanning. Interlaced video is usually adopted in traditional analog television systems in which only the odd lines, then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn one after another. As a result, only half of the number of actual image frames are utilized to produce video.

As a matter of fact, progressive scanning is known as “sequential scanning” in the first place when it was adopted in the Baird 240 line television transmissions from Alexandra Palace, United Kingdom in 1936. Nowadays, progressive scanning has been universally adopted in computing.

Progressive scanning is applied in the scanning and storing of film-based material on DVDs. It was agreed that all film transmissions by HDTV would be broadcast with progressive scan in the US. Even though the video signal is sent interlaced, an HDTV will convert it to progressive scan.

Progressive scanning has been applied on most Cathode ray tube (CRT) computer monitors, all LCD computer monitors, and most HDTVs for the display resolutions are progressive by nature. Other CRT-type displays, such as SDTVs, will only display interlaced video.

Generally speaking, some TVs and most video projectors have one or more progressive scan inputs. Before HDTV became well received, some high end displays supported 480p. Under such conditions, these displays were able to be used with devices outputting progressive scan. For instance, some progressive scan DVD players and certain video game consoles are included. HDTVs support the 480p and 720p resolutions which have been progressively scanned. Compared with lower resolution HDTV models, the 1080p displays are usually more expensive. 

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Device Driver

Device driver is usually called driver for short. Generally speaking, driver is a more popular name among people. In computing, it refers to a computer program which operates or controls a particular type of device which is attached to the computer. As a matter of fact, a driver provides a software interface to hardware devices, which enables the operating system and other computer programs to have access to hardware functions even without needing to know the hardware being used in great details.

Typically, a driver can only communicate with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem connected to the hardware. If the routine located in the driver is invoked by a calling program, then the driver will issue commands to the device immediately. As long as the device sends the received data back to the driver, the routines in the original calling program are likely to be invoked as well. As a matter of fact, drivers are hardware-dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface. Therefore, it is safe to say that drivers are of vital significance in computing.

Device drivers act as translators working between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems using it, which can effectively simplify programming. Moreover, programmers can write the higher-level application code regardless of the specific type of hardware being used.

For instance, a high-level application for interlacing can be rather simple. It may have only two simple functions, namely, “send data” and “receive data”. However, it is able to interact with a serial port. In comparison, a device driver at a lower level may only be able to communicate with a particular serial port controller installed on a user’s computer even though it has implemented these functions as well. 

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Where Deinterlacing Is Performed

Deinterlacing of the interlaced video signal can be performed at different points in the TV production chain.

Progresive Media

If the broadcast format or media format is progressive, then the interlaced archive programs will need the help of deinterlacing. Generally speaking, there are two ways for people to choose from in order to achieve this.

First of all, people can convert the interlaced video material to progressive scan during program production. In this way, the best possible quality is likely to be produced for videographers are capable of manually choosing the optimal deinterlacing method for each frame since they have access to expensive and powerful deinterlacing equipment and software.

Secondly, people could convert interlaced programs to progressive scan immediately prior to broadcasting with the help of real-time deinterlacing hardware. However, the conversion may be inferior to the pre-production method for the processing time is limited by the frame rate and no human input is available.

Interlaced media

Real-time deinterlacing also plays an important role in converting the interlaced video. If the broadcast format or media format is interlaced, then it can work to help people. However, the quality may be not so satisfactory because the consumer electronics equipment is rather cheap, which means that only less processing power and simpler algorithms are available in comparison with professional deinterlacing equipment.

On the other hand, what can not be ignored is the fact that the majority of users are not trained in video production, which sometimes lead to poor quality for many people have little knowledge about deinterlacing and are no aware that the frame rate is half the field rate. Therefore, deinterlacing is a very demanding work which needs to be done in a careful and patient way. Only with these efforts can people enjoy the video with the best possible quality.

Monday, January 26, 2015

Deinterlacing Methods

Deinterlacing refers to the technique which demands the display to buffer one or more fields and recombine them into full frames. Theoretically, this technique sound as simple as capturing one field and combining it with the next field to be received and then producing a single frame. However, deinterlacing is far more form simple in actual application. Generally speaking, the originally recorded signal was produced as a series of fields. What’s more, any motion of the objects during the short period between the fields will be encoded into the display. As a result, even the slightest differences between the two field due to the motion of the objects may lead to a “combing” effect in the combination process of a single frame. Therefore, deinterlacing is a very demanding technique requiring people to be careful and patient.

Actually, there are a variety of methods for people to choose from in terms of deinterlacing video. In addition, each method will cause different problems or artifacts of its own. On the other hand, some methods are much cleaner in artifacts than other methods.

Most deinterlacing techniques can be divided into three different groups which use their own exact techniques. The first group is called field combination deinterlacers. The name comes from the fact that they are able to take the even and odd fields and combine them into frame displayed later. The second group is called field extension deinterlacers for each field is extended to the entire screen in order to make a frame. The third group is called motion compensation which uses a combination of both.

Modern deinterlacing systems are able to buffer several fields and use techniques like edge detection in order to locate the motion between the fields. Therefore, this is adopted by people to interpolate the missing lines from the original field and reducing the combining effect.

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Interlacing Problems

Generally speaking, interlacing is a very useful technique developed by people with the intention of capturing, storing, transmitting and displaying the interlaced video in the exactly same interlaced format. Its wide application in today’s scienece and technology field proves that interlacing is really very helpful and thus widely accepted by people. As a matter of fact, each interlaced video frame is made up of two fields which are captured at two different times. As a result, the interlaced video frame is likely to exhibit motion artifacts. Those artifacts, known as interlaced effects, or combing, will appear when the recorded object moves fast enough to be in different positions when each individual field is captured. If the interlaced video is displayed at a slower speed than it was captured or displayed in still frames, then these artifacts will be more visible. Therefore, people are supposed to try their best to avoid these motion artifacts in order to get the most satisfactory progressive frames. Only under such circumstance can people enjoy the video of the best quality.

Fortunately, there are some both simple and useful methods which can help users to produce satisfactory progressive frames from the interlaced image. For instance, users can make use of the function of doubling the lines of one field and omitting the other, namely, halving vertical resolution, or anti-aliasing the image in the vertical axis, which will be of great use for them to hide some of the interlaced effects or combing. Sometimes, these methods can help users produce progressive frames of more satisfactory quality. Therefore, users are supposed to make the fullest possible use of these functions to help themselves produce better and more satisfactory progressive frames. With these functions and adjustments, people will have the opportunity to enjoy the video of the best possible quality.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

About Deinterlacing

Generally speaking, interlaced video can be directly displayed on ALiS plasma panels and the old CRTs. However, modern computer video displays and TV sets are mostly based on LCD technology, the majority of which adopt progressive scanning. Therefore, interlaced video can not be directly displayed on such modern computer video displays and TV sets. Under this circumstance, the technique of deinterlacing is of great necessity and value in our daily life. The process of deinterlacing plays a vital role for people to display interlaced video on a progressive scan display.

As a matter of fact, deinterlacing is an imperfect technique. Most of the time, it will lower the resolution and lead to a variety of artifacts, especially in those areas with objects in motion. Only when users are equipped with some very expensive and complex devices and algorithms can they get the interlaced video with the best picture quality. For television displays, deinterlacing systems are integrated into progressive scan TV sets that accept interlaced video.

The majority of modern computer monitors do not support interlaced video. Therefore, users have to perform deinterlacing in the software in advance, which enables the interlaced video to be played back on a computer display. Actually, the deinterlacing process often adopts some vey simple methods. As a result, the interlaced video often has visible artifacts on computer systems. Interlaced video may be edited by computer systems, but the video content being edited can only be viewed properly with the help of a separate video display hardware for there the computer video display system and the interlaced television signal format have various differences. Fortunately, current manufacture TV sets has adopted a system of a system of intelligently extrapolating the extra information that would be present in a progressive signal entirely from an interlaced original.

Friday, January 23, 2015

Brief Introduction of Deinterlacing

Deinterlacing refers to the technique of converting interlaced video. For example, when you are converting the common analog television signals or 1080i format signal into a non-interlaced form, you are performing the process of deinterlacing by your own. Generally speaking, interlaced video can be directly displayed on ALiS plasma panels and the old CRTs. However, modern computer video displays and TV sets are mostly based on LCD technology, the majority of which adopt progressive scanning. Therefore, interlaced video can not be directly displayed on such modern computer video displays and TV sets. Under this circumstance, the technique of deinterlacing is of great necessity and value in our daily life. The process of deinterlacing plays a vital role for people to display interlaced video on a progressive scan display.

As a matter of fact, interlaced video is made up of two sub-fields which are taken in sequence. Generally speaking, each of the two sub-fields is sequentially scanned at odd and even lines of the image sensor separately. This technique is adopted by the analog television because less transmission bandwidth is allowed for and the perceived flicker can be eliminated to a greater degree. Displays based on CRT were able to correctly display interlaced video because of its complete analog nature. On the other hand, all of the modern displays are designed to be digital in nature because the display consists of discrete pixels. As a result, the two fields need to be combined into a single frame, which will lead to a variety of visual defects. The technique of deinterlacing should try to avoid such conditions as much as possible.

People have been dedicated to improving the technique of deinterlacing for decades. What’s more, complex processing algorithms have been adopted as well. Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to achieve consistent results. However, we should have confidence in technologists and the more and more developed science and technology. The technique of deinterlacing will be improved step by step.

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Benefits of Interlacing

There is no doubt that the signal bandwidth is one of the most important factors in analog television. The signal bandwidth is measured in megahertz. Generally speaking, the greater the bandwidth is, the more expensive and complex the entire production and broadcasting chain are. Many kinds of digital device are included: cameras, storage systems, broadcast systems and reception systems.

First of all, interlace provides a fixed bandwidth with a video signal whose frame rate is twice the display refresh rate for a given line count. With the higher frame rate, the appearance of objects motion is greatly improved for the higher rate is able to update their positions on the monitor more often. If the object is still, then human vision will combine information from multiple similar half-frames in order to produce the same perceived resolution as progressive full frames.

Secondly, interlaced video also enables a higher spatial resolution than progressive scan. For example, 1920×1080 pixel resolution interlaced HDTV with a 60 Hz field rate has a similar bandwidth to 1280×720 pixel progressive scan HDTV with a 60 Hz frame rate, but its spatial resolution is approximately twice the resolution for low-motion scenes.

Even though interlaced video have much advantages, the bandwidth benefits can only be enjoyed by analog or uncompressed digital video signal. If the digital video has already been compressed, then interlacing may lead to some additional inefficiencies no matter what current digital TV standards it is used in. On the other hand, it has been proved that even though the frame rate can reach twice the number of the progressive scan, the bandwidth savings of interlaced video over progressive video is minimal. For instance, when encoding a "sports-type" scene, 1080p50 signal almost produces the same bit rate as 1080i50 while it actually requires less bandwidth to be perceived as subjectively better than its 1080i/25 equivalent.

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

About Interlaced Video

Interlaced video refers to the technique for doubling the frame rate of a video display without the making use of extra bandwidth. Generally speaking, the interlaced signal consists of two fields of a video frame captured at two different times. Interlaced video are powerful in function as it can enhance motion perception to the viewer and reduce flicker by making use of the phi phenomenon effect.

As a result, compared to non-interlaced footage (for frame rates equal to field rates), interlaced video doubles the time resolution (also known as temporal resolution). At the same time, interlaced video has a lot of requirements which need to be satisfied in order to make it function well. A display capable of showing the individual fields in a sequential order is necessary for interlaced signals. As a result, considering the electronic scanning and apparent fixed-resolution, there are only two kinds of displays are able to display interlaced signals: CRT displays and ALiS plasma displays.

Interlaced scan, along with progressive scan, is one of the two common methods for “painting” a video image on the electronic display screen which is realized by scanning or displaying each line or row of pixels. Under such condition, two fields are utilized to create a frame by this technique. One field contains all odd lines in the image, while the other contains all even lines.

For example, a PAL-based television set display scans 50 fields every second (25 odd and 25 even). A full frame, every 1/25 of a second (or 25 frames per second), is created by the two sets of 25 fields working together. At the same time, a new half frame every 1/50 of a second (or 50 fields per second) is created with interlacing. On the other hand, deinterlacing is applied to the video signal in order to display interlaced video on progressive scan displays in the process of playback. 

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Different Types of Computer Cases

Traditionally, there are two basic styles when it comes to computer cases: the desktop and the tower. Desktop computer cases are flat and box-shaped. Its height is about eight inches (20 cm). From its given name we can know that the desktop computer case is designed to sit on top of the desk. The majority of desktop computer case users often place their monitors on the top of the case with the intention of saving space. On the other hand, tower computer cases are tall, deep and narrow for they are tipped up on one side. Generally speaking, tower computer cases are placed below the desk.

Users can open the desktop computer case by lifting the top off. The motherboard of the computer is installed on the bottom of the computer while the hard drive is installed in bays. One or more DVD/CD players, a floppy drive, advanced sound card interface and any kind of device made for a computer bay can be accommodated in the front of the desktop computer case at the same time. Although some computer cases feature connectivity for front USB, Firewire, microphone and headphone ports, the majority of the port lies at the rear of the case.

People design the tower computer case with the intention of saving space. The tower computer case are usually placed on the floor by the feet or to the right in a cubbyhole present on some modern computer desks in order to accomplish its mission, which can bring users much convenience and benefits. In addition, there are several ways for users to make use of when opening the tower case according to the model. Sliding away one or both sides and lifting away the top together with both sides are both feasible and useful.

It is very beneficial for users to master a good knowledge of the computer case for they can choose a model they will take most advantages of.

Monday, January 19, 2015

A Brief Introduction of Computer Cases

A computer case is also known as a computer chassis, tower, system unit, cabinet, base unit or simply case. Sometimes, people may call it the “CPU” or “hard drive”, which is totally wrong. A computer case holds the components that make up the computer system, usually excluding the monitor, mouse and keyboard for they are separate. Generally speaking, computer cases are made from steel (often SECC — Steel, electrogalvanized, cold-rolled, coil) or aluminum. Plastic is also used by the manufacturer from time to time. On the other hand, some common material may be adopted by people when making home-built cases. For example, glass, wood and even Lego blocks may be taken use of by people. Another thing people are supposed to pay attention to is that a computer case can come in various sizes and models according to the requirements of the user and many other important factors. Therefore, people will have many choices to make in order to have a better experience in terms of computing and enjoy more convenience, which can bring them a lot of benefits.

As we all know, a computer case has a variety of sizes (known as form factors). There is no doubt that the motherboard is the largest component of the majority of computers, so the motherboard plays a vital role in the determination of the size of the computer size. As a result, the size and shape of a computer case is different from each other because the form factor of the motherboard is various from each other. In addition, the form factor of the personal computer typically specifies only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Meanwhile, the form factor for rack-mounted and blade servers may include precise external dimensions at the same time for these kinds of cases must themselves well fit in specific enclosures.

Sunday, January 18, 2015

Suggestions on Firmware

Generally speaking, firmware is at the heart of almost all popular digital devices. It is safe to say that everywhere we can see digital device that uses the firmware, for example, portable audio players, cell phones, personal digital assistants, digital cameras and gaming consoles. In electronic systems and computing, firmware is the combination of persistent memory and program code and data stored in it. The firmware contained in the above-mentioned devices provides the control program for the device. 

On the other hand, it may be very difficult for users to change the firmware of a device during its economic lifetime. There are some problems people have to deal with when upgrading the firmware. There is some firmware memory devices permanently installed, which means that people are not able to change them after manufacture. However, users always have to fix bugs or add features to the device, which demands them to upgrade the firmware. As a result, users have no choice but to replace the ROM integrated circuit or reprogram the flash memory through a specially designed procedure. 

Therefore, users should buy the electronic items that can be upgradable. Keep in mind that the product is usually advertised as being “upgradable” when shopping for electronic items. With such device, users are capable of upgrading the firmware online by connecting the device to the manufacturer’s website or a universal serial bus or FireWire port on a computer system and following the instructions given by the manufacturer. 

The firmware being upgradable can extend the life of the electronic device as well as add new functionality. However, what can not be ignored is that flashing the chips can be risky at the same time as the device will not boot when the flashing process is interrupted or become corrupted. Therefore, users cannot be more careful when upgrading the firmware when following the instructions given by the manufacturer. Besides, it is advisable to back up the important data in advance.

Saturday, January 17, 2015

About Firmware

Firmware is the read-only memory (ROM) chips which function as useful tools storing permanent instructions. It plays an extremely vital role in the operation of the computer because it is the key that boots up the computerized or digital device. On the other hand, it is so powerful in that it does not require a power source to hold its contents for the ROM chips are non-volatile. This characteristic distinguishes it from random access memory (RAM) as the RAM will lose the stored data at shutdown. Generally speaking, people have not much knowledge about firmware. It is possible that the basic input-output system (BIOS) chip is the most well-known fro common users. The BIOS chip on a computer motherboard stores instructions that boot up the hardware when booting up the computer and make sure that the components are working and roll out the operating system to take over eventually.

Users were not able to rewrite the firmware chips in the past. Therefore, people had no choice but to buy a new motherboard as long as the former BIOS was outmoded. With the rapid development of science and technology, this problem has been successfully solved. The new chips are capable of understanding the latest hardware so that users are able to get rid of the limitations of the older drives and other legacy technologies when confronted with unavoidable upgrades.

There is no denying that it would bring about a great deal of benefits if the firmware can be upgraded. With the emergence of the flash memory chips, this is realizable. The BIOS is written to the flash memory chip, which enables the user to connect to the manufacturer’s website. Under such conditions, users are free to download an upgrade and flash the BIOS chip during boot-up to install a new set of instructions. Therefore, all quality motherboards today feature a flash BIOS. 

Friday, January 16, 2015

Advantages of Low Profile Video Cards

In today’s society, technology and science is developing at a rather speed and many technology device is emerging every day. Video cards are no exception. With the improvement of technology, video cards are also becoming more and more powerful. Meanwhile, the video card has become larger and requires greater resources inside the computer. The higher the speed the video card running at, the greater power it demands. What’s more, dedicated cooling in the form of heatsinks and fans built into the card is also necessary most of the time. As a result, some noise may be caused in its operation. Moreover, as most standard connections between the video card and the motherboard cannot provide enough power for the card to utilize, power supply has to be connected to the card directly. In comparison with the on-board graphics card, the low profile video card is typically more powerful while it demands less room inside the computer than most other video cards.

On the other hand, the low profile video card has a variety of advantages for it can work while counteracting some of these above-mentioned requirements. First of all, it is smaller in size, which makes it require less room inside the computer. Secondly, it does not demand dedicated power lines or additional cooling under most of the condition. Therefore, the low profile video card is rather quieter for the loud noise caused by hearsinks and the fans other types of video cards require disappear because they won’t be operating when the low profile video card is working. However, it may be very difficult to find a low profile power card which is of high quality. Therefore, it will take great efforts and much time for people to buy their ideal low profile video cards, but it is worthy spending time finding a ideal low profile video card to use. 

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Brief Introduction of Low Profile Video Cards

The video card is a very important and powerful device which plays a vital role in information processing and rendering. It is placed inside the computer and designed as a tool for users to connect to the motherboard and deal with the processing and rendering of information in a graphical method. The video card also plays a rather significant role in running personal computer games on the computer. At the same time, the cards can also function as a powerful tool in terms of outputting the basic video from the computer to a monitor or similar display. Under most circumstances, every computer setup is equipped with some kind of video card and the majority of the motherboard is also equipped with on-board video processors which enable the monitor to be connected to the computer.

A low profile video card is a special type of the video card. It is smaller in size for it is designed for people to use it on the computer with a smaller case. However, it is equally powerful and more convenient. Generally speaking, a low profile video card is quieter and may have lower requirements in terms of power in comparison with a standard video card. Therefore, we can safely come to the conclusion that the low profile video card has the following typical characteristics: smaller size, quietness and lower power requirements. However, these characteristics also bring about some kind of disadvantages for the low profile video card, which need to be paid much attention to. The reality is that it seems somewhat a little less advanced in graphics processing. In addition, a low profile video card may fail to match the performance of video cards in larger size under some circumstances. However, these problems cannot change the fact that it is also powerful and more convenient in comparison with the standard video card.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

What Is Hot Plugging?

Hot plugging refers to the system for managing devices that can be automatically replaced or installed without shutting down the attached computer. Hot plugging is also known as hot swapping. It is implemented when you have the need to add or remove a peripheral device, to carry out the reconfiguration of a device or working system is required, to replace the defective component or device or to realize the synchronization of data. Generally speaking, the most popular use for hot plugging system is handling the USB and firewire device, though it is also widely applied into the use of PCI, tape drives, SCSI devices, the device within which the firmware is loaded, input devices and so on. The hot plugging system consists of a kernel part and a userland part. On the other hand, it allows the equipment to get an easy access to it and brings great conveniences for it enables the system to be uninterrupted.

Moreover, anything happening as an action or event can be called as hotplug. Generally speaking, there are two main types of hot plugging, namely, add and remove a device, which are also referred to as register and unregister a device according to the subsystem files you are looking at.

As the above-mentioned information stated, the device is swapped while the computer is running or hot, and this is how hot plugging or hot swapping gets it name. Meanwhile, such device is also known as “hotpluggable”. On the other hand, the device cannot be added or removed under such circumstances is referred to as cold plugging.

There is some kind of standard in terms of judging whether the device is hotpluggable or not. First of all, it must be able to connect to a running computer and operate nearly instantaneously. In addition, a mechanism supporting hot plugging has to be able to figure out the replaced or removed modules or devices. Last but not least, the mechanical and electrical connection must add or remove the device safely without causing any harm to the device or user.

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

About Resolution

The resolution of the image refers to the total number of pixels displayed on the screen of your computer. Generally speaking, the higher the resolution is, the higher the quality of the image is. As a result, great efforts should be taken in the improvement of the image resolution.

There are a lot of different types of the resolution of digital images, including pixel resolution, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, temporal and radiometric resolution.

First of all, pixel resolution is used to describe the number of the pixel utilized in the digital imaging. Different ways can be adopted for the expression of the pixel resolution, for example, you are free to choose in the following form: a horizontal x vertical measurement, in megapixels, or per unit area. The megapixel refers to the way in which the horizontal value is multiplied by the vertical value and divided by a million.

Second, the spatial resolution is an expression which is utilized to describe how closely the columns, namely, the horizontal value, and rows, namely, the vertical value, can be resolved in an image. Not only does it rely on the number of the pixel but it is also dependent on the system which creates the image. 

Third, the spectral resolution is a way used to express the resolution of the different color wavelength existing in a colored image.

Forth, the temporal resolution is an expression which is adopted in order to describe the resolution of events at different time points in the movie camera.

Last but not least, the radiometric resolution is a way which is applied in the expression of the number of bits. Moreover, it also defines the difference existing in intensity among the image file.

In conclusion, resolution is of high significance in printing high quality images and graphics. After all, more resolution means more data and more information.

Monday, January 12, 2015

Brief Introduction of Aspect Ratio

Generally speaking, aspect ratio refers to the width of an image to the height of the image. It is always expressed in the form of x:y. For instance, we can always see such numbers like 16:9 or 4:3, which are typical aspect ratio commonly seen and applied in daily life. When used under different circumstances, it is always different accordingly. For example, the aspect ratio of the photography is different from that of television or computer applications. If the aspect ratio is changed in an arbitrary way, then the image quality may be damaged or even the image could be distorted. As a result, it is wise of you to keep in mind that the aspect ratio can not be changed at will. Otherwise, you could lose the opportunity to enjoy the image of high quality and even get your mood spoiled by the distorted image.

OAR, short for original aspect ratio, is the original aspect ratio in which the film is made. The original aspect ratio can be altered in order to make it more convenient for consumers to view in other modes, such as television. It is only possible for you to convert the original aspect ratio by the following method: you are supposed to enlarge the original image to fill the area as well as cut off the excess area. Another way you have a chance to alter the original aspect ratio is to stretch the image in order to fill in the area required by the new aspect ratio.

MAR, refers to the modified aspect ratio, is the aspect ratio which is assigned for the purpose to fit the type of screen. On the other hand, it is also different from the dimensions in which it has been filmed.

Sunday, January 11, 2015

About Frame Rate

Frame rate is also known as frame frequency or frames per second (FPS). It is the frequency or rate at which the imaging device produces unique successive images. Those images are called frames, and thus frame rate gets it name. It is a count of how many images a movie displays per each and every second. As a matter of fact, a frame remains still but visible image. However, we have the impression that the movie is showing us a motion picture. The reason is that the image is displayed in rapid succession, which creates the illusion for us. The term also applies to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate describes the speed of both recording and playback. Generally speaking, the more frames recorded per second, the more accurate motion is displayed on the screen.

Under most of the circumstance, recording and playback are of the same speed although it is not necessary. However, on the other hand, if you play back frames at a speed different from that of the original recording, then some potential problems may come into being. For example, some temporal effects such as time lapse and slow motion may emerge, which could bring some unexpected damage to the video quality.

Moreover, different content has different numbers of FPS. The different FPS can be classified by the part of the world from which the DVD comes, the way in which the content is recorded, or the way that the DVD is mastered.

In conclusion, frame rate is the number of the frame or the image projected or displayed in motion pictures, television, and in computer video displays. The more frames or images are recorded per second, the more vivid and clear picture people will enjoy on the screen. 

Saturday, January 10, 2015

How HDCP Works

Here is an example for you to have a brief understanding of how HDCP works.
If you have a HDTV and you want to watch a high definition DVD on it, then you connect the Blue-ray disc player to the TV with a HDMI cable. As a matter of fact, the moment you begin playing the HDCP-encrypted disc on your HDTV, the authentication process starts as well.
Here is the explanation of how HDCP works. Generally speaking, the transmitting device will send a ping to the receiving device, which is similar to the behavior of a submarine. If you want the signal to work all the time, then the receiving device has to return the ping the transmitting device within the limited period of time. Otherwise, the signal will stop and you have no opportunity to watch the high definition DVD any longer. Therefore, from the above-mentioned information, we can safely come to the conclusion that the key in such process lies in the return of the ping from the receiving device to the transmitting device.
In this example, the transmitting device is the Blue-ray player and the receiving device is the HDTV. As a result, things may end up in two totally different ways. If our HDTV is compatible with HDCP, then we are free to enjoy the high definition DVD as much as possible. However, if it is not HDCP-compatible, then the signal will be stopped and the movie won’t be played at all. Thus, all we are likely to get is either an error message or a blank screen.

According to the above-mentioned example, we can safely draw the conclusion that the most important factor in this process is that your device must be HDCP-compatible. Only in this way can the HDCP-encrypted content be played on the screen.

Friday, January 9, 2015

About HDCP

HDCP, short for High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection, a digital-only content protection technology associated with HDMI and DVI interfaces, is developed by Intel Corporation. It is designed for the protection of high-value digital motion pictures, television programs, and audio for it can encrypt a digital signal with a key that requires authentication from the transmitting and receiving product. Unauthorized interception and copying between a digital set top box or digital video recorder and a digital TV or PC is thus forbidden. The only thing which enables people to get access to the signal and unlock the secured content is a license key, which is set inside of the HDMI or DVI interface.

The common products which contain HDMI or DVI interface are televisions, Blu-ray disc players, cable/satellite set-top boxes, splitters, switchers, video recorders, and computer, etc. therefore, these products can be applied into use as long as they are compatible with HDCP. However, not every product is compatible with HDCP. As a result, the compatibility issue needs to be settled down. Then, how to fix HDCP compatibility problem?
Generally speaking, the feasible way to fix the compatibility issue is to discard the original device and replace them with new ones that are compatible with HDCP or to give up using the HDMI or DVI cable. In other words, there is no way and no device can change the fact that HDMI and DVI interface is not compatible with HDCP. On the other hand, non-digital cables like coaxial, RCA, component, s-video have no such issues because HDCP is digital-only.

Nonetheless, new device which can work as a HDMI/HDCP or DVI/HDCP converter is expected to be developed. In that way, the compatibility problem can be solved easily. Moreover, all HDCP-less televisions and devices can remain useful with Blu-ray and other digital media.

Thursday, January 8, 2015

Advantages of DVI

We have come into the electronic age. Almost everything in our life can go digital, which does bring us a lot of benefits and conveniences. However, we can never handle so much digital resources successfully without decent and qualified equipment. Therefore, DVI emerges as a standardized digital interface for us to cope with digital resources. There are a lot of advantages of DVI we benefit from in our daily life.

First of all, DVI can enable you to make full use of digital connections. A large number of digital interfaces will help you attach digital devices between the media and monitor. As a result, you can yield pictures and output of high quality with the DVI cables.

Secondly, DVI cables will help to improve the cable bandwidth of a TV monitor because the flow of images and the performance of a TV are not compromised.

Thirdly, your system can be cleaned up with the help of DVI cables. If you have installed analog system on your computer, then an EMI issue would appear, which could pose a great threat to your TV and other system. DVI cable can handle this problem for you.

Fourthly, DVI cables is able to aid the software characterizations developed inside the windows operating system and other operating systems. These characters can be easily understood by the DVI cable, which could make the user utilize the PC to a larger extent because of better information about this product.

Fifthly, you are free to utilize DVI no matter where you are. Unlike some other devices which are built-in, DVI cables can be installed anywhere. The traditional interface have to be kept consistent, which makes it have only limited offers. The DVI interface has no such issue. The installing of an output of DVI can be rather easily finished. You just need to push the receptacle gently together until the pins and the cord are attached with each other. 

Wednesday, January 7, 2015

Advice on the Choice of DVI Cables

You are expected to have a good command of what female DVI plugs you are using in order to choose the right kind of cables. Only when you have chosen the appropriate cables which are compatible with your female DVI plugs can you make the fullest use of the female DVI plugs in your practice. Otherwise, you will waste a large amount of money, time and energy with your digital resources dealt with poorly.

If cables are mismatched, then your pins will be broken off. Fortunately, manufactures have noticed such problems and improved their products. The female plugs have been designed to be compatible with all available pins. You may think that the majority of the female DVI plug will be similar to a DVI-I in appearance, but chances are that you are wrong. Make sure that you have checked the label or the product documentation and figured out the type of the plug. If you have a DVI-D plug, then you can buy a DVI-D or DVI-I cable for they are both compatible with digital signals.If you have a DVI-A plug, you can buy either DVI-A or DVI-I cable for they both support analog signals. On the other hand, if you have mismatched plugs, then you can choose either a DVI-I cable or the cable that matches the other plug. As a matter of fact, a DVI-I cable is compatible with both digital and analog signals. For instance, you can use a DVI-D cable on a DVI-I to DVI-D connection, but not a DVI-A cable.

Last but not least, keep in mind that the maximum signal length is 5 meters when you need to extend the DVI cables in existence by using DVI-I extension and DVI-D Extension cables. Otherwise, the image and video may suffer quality loss.

Tuesday, January 6, 2015

DVI Cabling Standards

Generally speaking, DVI cables can be divided into three types of standards. Therefore, you are supposed to have a good command of the relevant knowledge about those cables before you go to buy any equipment in order to upgrade to DVI.

DVI-D - DVI Digital (True Digital)
DVI-D can directly connect the digital signals from your video cards and your monitor. In other words, the signal is completely digital during the whole process without being converted into analog signals. As a result, you are able to get images and videos as clear and vivid as the original ones without any quality loss. On the other hand, the transfer speed is rather fast.

DVI-A - DVI Analog (High-Resolution Analog)
DVI-A is usually utilized to transfer DVI signals to an analog display. Generally speaking, the signal will be carried to the CRT’s and sometimes HDTV’s. In such process, the signal is converted, which leads to the quality to be lost. Nonetheless, pictures transmitted by this format are of higher quality compared with those transmitted by standard VGA formats. As a matter of fact, this format is outmoded and discarded by people in today’s market.

DVI-I - DVI Integrated (Digital and Analog in One Format)
DVI-I is almost standard connection for any video card which is compatible with DVI. It can be used to transfer both analog and digital signals in one cable. However, the cable can only work in a digital-to-digital or an analog-to-analog way, which means that it won’t support the crossovers transmit of either one(digital-to-analog or analog-to-digital).

Last but not least, remember that these three cables cannot be exchanged with other cables. The standards can never be mixed. DVI-D cables cannot be placed on analog systems nor can DVI-A cables on digital systems. However,a DVI-I port can accept another DVI-I, DVI-D or DVI-A cable.

Monday, January 5, 2015

Suggestions on How to Use DVI

There is something you are supposed to keep in mind when it comes to taking advantage of DVI. Only when you have learned those key points can you make the most of it to benefit yourself.

First of all, DVI to DVI is always best. In this way, video signals are not even converted to analog and you will almost have no image quality lost. The image will be as clear and vivid as the original ones. If you have bought expensive devices with high-end LCD, the monitors of the devices will support DVI. As for those with CRT, chances are that only the minority will be equipped with DVI. Therefore, you are expected to buy video cards that support DVI and DVI monitors. Then, you have the opportunity to enjoy perfect images without any quality damaged.

Secondly, examine your connectors in advance. It is of vital significance for you to have a good command of what you have and then you are free to utilize them based on your needs and requirements. In other words, you have to figure out whether your monitor and video cards are compatible with DVI before you deal with any digital resources. On the other hand, you should know what kind of DVI standard they use. Adapters are also of great importance. You are supposed to buy one if in need and choose it according to your needs.With all these devices ready, you can make the most of DVI.

Thirdly, figure out your expectations and limitations. The above-mentioned steps are necessary, but this step you cannot afford to miss as well. You can’t mix the standard of your video connection with that of your LCD monitor. On the other hand, it is wise of you to buy a video card compatible with DVI if you haven’t got one.

Sunday, January 4, 2015

The Development of DVI

As science and technology is developing at a surprisingly high speed, people have more and more devices connected to their desktop and personal computers and various kinds of devices. However, the lack of standardization in digital interfacing poses a tough problem for their devices to work. As a result, DVI, created by the Digital Display Working Group, is utilized as a specification specifically for the accommodation of analog and digital interfaces with one single connector. In addition, DVI can save consumers a large amount of money for they don’t need to install all devices needed for the completely digital displays. As a matter of fact, DDWG was stimulated by the cut of costs and the lack of standardization to create DVI in order to promote a standard adopted in the market.

To be honest, Analog graphics technology is becoming outmoded for it can no longer satisfy people’s requirements. Therefore, people are bound to discard it. On the other hand, DVI emerges as an advanced technology which is specifically designed to meet those demanding requirements. It is safe to say that DVI is the best predecessor to analog in consideration of its powerful ability to improve the quality of images and the rate of data transfer. However, it always takes some time for people to fully understand and take advantage of the emerging technology. DVI is no exception. There is a long way to go for the market to be completely digital. With the price of DVI dropping gradually as time goes by, consumers will prefer to making use of it to improve their systems. More and more manufacturers will pay attention to it as well. In the foreseeable future, we will become completely digital. Everyone will benefit from DVI to the largest degree.

Saturday, January 3, 2015

Brief Introduction of DVI

With the surprisingly rapid development of science and technology, enormous high-tech equipment is emerging in today’s electronics market. To be honest, people do have more digital resources to deal with in their daily life. We have come into the electronic age. Almost everything in our life can go digital, which does bring us a lot of benefits and conveniences. However, we can never handle so much digital resources successfully without decent equipment. Therefore, DVI, short for Digital Visual Interface, emerges as a standardized digital interface for us to cope with digital resources.

DVI, a newly-popular interface widely used in practice, is designed to help people make the most of the quality of flat panel LCD monitors and high-end video graphic cards. With people’s requirements becoming more and more demanding, the outmoded P&D Plug & Display standard can no longer satisfy people and thus have been discarded. It is an improvements of the digital-only DFP format for older panels. More and more video card manufacturers begin producing cards with DVI output ports for DIV enjoys increasing popularity among consumers. As a matter of fact, most cards purchased in the electronics market now include both a VGA and a DVI output port. On the other hand,not only can DVI be used as the computer interface, but also it can work to transfer digital resources coming from HDTV, EDTV, Plasma Display, and other ultra-high-end video displays for TV, movies, and DVDs. It is safe to say that DVI is playing an increasingly important role in our daily life. You are supposed to use DVI. Nonetheless, it is not advisable for you to discard all your old cables which are not compatible with DVI at once. You just need to pay attention to the compatible cables closely and try your best to utilize it. 

Friday, January 2, 2015

Differences between Analog and Digital Signals

There are two types of signals that can carry information - analog and digital signals. They have been widely applied in people’s daily life. However, there are still some differences between them. First of all, the primary difference between analog and digital signals is that analog signals are continuous electrical signals which play recorded materials in their original form, whereas digital signals are non-continuous electrical signals generated by digital modulation which play materials in their re-sample forms. At the same time, this leads to the quality difference in analog and digital signals. Nonetheless, analog signals are limited to a larger degree because they are only capable of playing what has been recorded in the first place.

Digital signals take the original recording and turn it into the sample of numbers at certain intervals instead of using the original recordings. Afterwards, the number will be stored onto the digital device and then turned into a voltage wave, which enables people to produce more sophisticated recordings. Therefore, the majority of people would agree that digital signals are of much higher quality although they still prefer the more authentic and rough sound of a record being played.

Analog signals are also different from digital signals in terms of the quality loss over time. The quality of signals will be damaged a little each time video tapes and other analog devices are made use of to play these signals. On the other hand, the quality of signals won’t be damaged at all no matter how many times they are going to be played by digital music and video devices. The signal can always remain the same as the original one as long as the number can be read. This is a rather compelling advantage digital signals have over analog signals.

Thursday, January 1, 2015

Analog and Digital Signals

Two types of signal are able to carry information, namely, analog signal and digital signal. The difference between mainly lies in that analog signal is continuous while the digital signal is non-continuous.

An analog signal is continuous, which means that it won’t be broken or interrupted. For example, sound is an analog signal b y nature. One moment just follows another moment naturally without any interruption or breaking. For example, if you were to hum a descending note, then you may be able to detect the change of pitch, nut you can not point the particular moments when the pitch change.

In comparison, digital signals are non-continuous. Specific values are used to represent different information. To put make it easier for you to understand, here is an example. If you record a descending note you have hummed into a primitive digital signal, then you will get a collection of shorter sounds which makes up a single long sound.

Analog recording methods are continuous, which makes some people believe that such methods will be better choice in capturing sounds for digital recording methods may lead to the miss of some subtle nuances. However, as the digital recording process is developing at a rapid speed, digital recordings can achieve greater precision thanks to its higher sampling rates. Event though the signal is non-continuous, the captured sounds is still similar to the original ones because of the high sampling rate.

One of the drawbacks of analog format is that the analog recording is likely to wear down, which influence the sound quality greatly. On the other hand, digital media is able to capture sound indefinitely. As a result, audio engineers also convert analog waves into digital signals with digital recording devices or use special equipment to record directly to digital. Another advantage digital media has over analog is that you are free to copy the original sound as many time as you like without any damage.